Samuel Markowitz MD, FRCS(C)
Director, Low Vision Rehabilitation Program
Ophthalmology & Vision Sciences
Contact Info
T: (416) 531-5425
1225 Davenport Road
Toronto, ON, M6H 2H1
MD Hadassah and Hebrew University 1973
FRCS(C) University of Toronto 1982
Department of Ophthalmology & Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario


Research Synopsis

  • Staff, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario
  • Low Vision Section Editor, Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology
  • Past-Member, Vision Rehabilitation Committee, American Academy of Ophthalmology


Current research interests are aimed at elucidating various aspects of visual function and functional vision parameters. Under study are aspects related to preferred retinal loci and their relationship to scotomata and to the oculomotor functions associated with refixation precission and fixation stability. Current work is focused on biofeedback methods for PRL rehabilitation, utilization of the eSight device, photobiomodualtion for treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration and rehabilitation work with the Argus II retinal prosthesis.

Dr. Markowitz presented his work at numerous and various professional meetings nationally and internationally, and in many peer reviewed scientific papers nationally and internationally. In 2017 he was awarded the Long Service Recognition Certificate from the Trillium Health Partners honoring 30 years of dedicated service to patients in Mississauga. In 2016 he was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from Eye Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Ontario Medical Association in recognition of a distinguished career of service to the specialty of Ophthalmology. In 2009 he was awarded the Achievement Award from the American Academy of Ophthalmology for professional accomplishments in Low Vision Rehabilitation. In 2009 he was awarded the Recognition for outstanding service to the profession of ophthalmology - from the American Academy of Ophthalmology for the development and maintenance of the Preferred Practice Patterns guidelines. In 2006 he was awarded the Distinguished Service Award from the Low Vision Rehabilitation Section of the American Optometric Association for professional accomplishments in Low Vision Rehabilitation and presented to him at the annual meeting in Boston, Ma., USA. In 2006 he was awarded the Secretariat Award from the American Academy of Ophthalmology for service and leadership in development of scientific and continuous education programs in Low Vision Rehabilitation at the 2003-6 Annual Meetings.

Publications and Awards

Recent Publications

Patino B, Markowitz M, Devenyi R, Markowitz SN - Initial reflections from the Toronto rehabilitation  experience with the Argus II implant in cases with Retinitis Pigmentosa. ISLRR Newsletter, 2016;1:4

Markowitz SN - The state of the Art - Low Vision Rehabilitation. Can J Ophthalmol. 2016;51(2):59- 66.

Cao KY, Markowitz SN - Residual stereopsis in age-related macular degeneration patients and its impact on vision related abilities: a pilot study. Journal of Optometry, 2014 Apr-Jun;7(2):100-5.

Podbielski DW, Reyes SV, Markowitz SN - The less used eye is not as bad as it seems to be in  AMD. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013;48(5):381-5

Markowitz SN, Reyes SV – Microperimetry and clinical practice- an evidence based review. Can J Ophthalmol, Can J Ophthalmol. 2013;48(5):350-7

Au AWS, Feng C, Valaee S, Reyes SV, Sorour S, Markowitz SN, Gold D, Gordon K, Eizenman M - Anonymous Indoor Navigation System on handheld mobile devices  for the visually impaired. Int J of Wireless Info Networks, 2012;19(4):352-367

Markowitz SN, Reyes SV, Sheng Li – The use of prisms for vision rehabilitation after macular  function loss: an evidence based review. Acta Ophthalmologica, 2013;91(3):207-11